Robert Mannell One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some years after its invention. In Blaise Pascal a famous French mathematician invented an adding machine based on mechanical gears in which numbers were represented by the cogs on the wheels. His design contained the five key characteristics of modern computers: An American, Herman Hollerith, developed around the first electrically driven device.
Based on a work at www. The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields.
Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line's circuit switching was inadequate.
Kleinrock's packet switching theory was confirmed. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet. After that, there were far too many to keep listing here. Who was the first to use the Internet? The Internet was designed to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the major sites were down.
If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes. The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians.
There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether write a brief history of a computer computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.
Did Al Gore invent the Internet? Gore was elected to Congress in In fairness, Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf acknowledge in a paper titled Al Gore and the Internet that Gore has probably done more than any other elected official to support the growth and development of the Internet from the 's to the present.
He picked the symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address. The telnet protocol, enabling logging on to a remote computer, was published as a Request for Comments RFC in RFC's are a means of sharing developmental work throughout community.
The ftp protocol, enabling file transfers between Internet sites, was published as an RFC inand from then on RFC's were available electronically to anyone who had use of the ftp protocol. Libraries began automating and networking their catalogs in the late s independent from ARPA.
The visionary Frederick G. In the mid s more regional consortia from New England, the Southwest states, and the Middle Atlantic states, etc.
Automated catalogs, not very user-friendly at first, became available to the world, first through telnet or the awkward IBM variant TN and only many years later, through the web.
It later won acceptance when he added some more equations to it. I would not say that the architecture was originally developed by Bob at BBN. He came to me with the problem and we jointly developed these concepts from about March - September at which point we briefed the International Network Working Group meeting In London in September and then published a paper in IEEE Transactions on Communications, May issue.
Usenet was started in based on UUCP. Newsgroups, which are discussion groups focusing on a topic, followed, providing a means of exchanging information throughout the world.
It was a significant part of the community building that took place on the networks. Listserv software was developed for this network and later others. These listservs and other forms of e-mail discussion lists formed another major element in the community building that was taking place.
In times past, it was fascinating to watch a BITNET message we sent as it proceeded from one stop to the next along the way to its destination. We would see it arrive at a site and then see it transmitted along to the next site and the next site and the next.
The pace of life was slower then! They maintained their sponsorship for nearly a decade, setting rules for its non-commercial government and research uses. As the commands for e-mailFTPand telnet were standardized, it became a lot easier for non-technical people to learn to use the nets.
It was not easy by today's standards by any means, but it did open up use of the Internet to many more people in universities in particular. Other departments besides the libraries, computer, physics, and engineering departments found ways to make good use of the nets--to communicate with colleagues around the world and to share files and resources.
While the number of sites on the Internet was small, it was fairly easy to keep track of the resources of interest that were available. But as more and more universities and organizations--and their libraries-- connected, the Internet became harder and harder to track.
There was more and more need for tools to index the resources that were available.The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet, play games and stream multimedia in addition to crunching numbers.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - . A Short History of Computers and Computing Robert Mannell One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some years after its invention.
Early history. During – Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Francis Maneclang about Charles Babbage's newest proposed machine, the analytical engine; she supplemented the memoir with notes that specified in detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the engine, recognized by some historians as the world's first computer program.
A Brief History of Computer Generations Joshua J. Reynolds The first computer was probably the abacus, which was used about 5, years ago in Asia Minor. As we know them today, computers were first used just after the Second World War, around Since then.
Many companies, such as Apple Computer and Radio Shack, introduced very successful PC’s in the s, encouraged in part by a fad in computer (video) games.
In the s some friction occurred in the crowded PC field, with Apple and IBM keeping strong.