This is the text of my keynote speech at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress in Leipzig, December You can also watch it on YouTube, but it runs to about 45 minutes. As a working science fiction novelist, I take a professional interest in how we get predictions about the future wrong, and why, so that I can avoid repeating the same mistakes. Science fiction is written by people embedded within a society with expectations and political assumptions that bias us towards looking at the shiny surface of new technologies rather than asking how human beings will use them, and to taking narratives of progress at face value rather than asking what hidden agenda they serve.
Rationale[ edit ] Raw image files are sometimes described as "digital negatives"; though they are not negative images, they fulfill the same role as negatives in film photography: Likewise, the process of converting a raw image file into a viewable format is sometimes called "developing" a raw image, by analogy with the film development process used to convert photographic film into viewable prints.
The selection of the final choice of image rendering is part of the process of white balancing and color grading. Like a photographic negative, a raw digital image may have a wider dynamic range or color gamut than the eventual final image format, and it preserves most of the information of the captured image.
The purpose of raw image formats is to save, with minimum loss of information, data obtained from the sensor, and the conditions surrounding the capturing of the image the metadata. Raw image formats are intended to capture the radiometric characteristics of the scene, that is, physical information about the light intensity and color of the scene, at the best of the camera sensor's performance.
Most raw image file formats store information sensed according to the geometry of the sensor's individual photo-receptive elements sometimes called pixels rather than points in the expected final image: File contents[ edit ] Raw files contain the information required to produce a viewable image from the camera's sensor data.
The structure of raw files often follows a common pattern: A short file header which typically contains an indicator of the byte-ordering of the file, a file identifier and an offset into the main file data Camera sensor metadata which is required to interpret the sensor image data, including the size of the sensor, the attributes of the CFA and its color profile Image metadata which is required for inclusion in any CMS environment or database.
Some raw files contain a standardized metadata section with data in Exif format. In the case of motion picture film scans, either the timecodekeycode or frame number in the file sequence which represents the frame sequence in a scanned reel. This item allows the file to be ordered in a frame sequence without relying on its filename.
Panasonic's raw converter corrects geometric distortion and chromatic aberration on such cameras as the LX3   with necessary correction information presumably included in the raw.
Raw files thus contain the full resolution typically or bit data as read out from each of the camera's image sensor pixels.
The camera's sensor is almost invariably overlaid with a color filter array CFAusually a Bayer filterconsisting of a mosaic of a 2x2 matrix of red, green, blue and second green filters. Other sensors, such as the Foveon X3 sensorcapture information directly in RGB form using three pixel sensors in each location.
These RGB raw data still need to be processed to make an image file, because the raw RGB values correspond to the responses of the sensors, not to a standard color space like sRGB.
These data do not need to be demosaicedhowever. Flatbed and film scanner sensors are typically straight narrow RGB or RGBI where "I" stands for the additional infra-red channel for automatic dust removal strips that are swept across an image.
The HDRi raw data format is able to store the infrared raw data, which can be used for infrared cleaningas an additional bit channel.
The remainder of the discussion about raw files applies to them as well. Some scanners do not allow the host system access to the raw data at all, as a speed compromise.
The raw data are processed very rapidly inside the scanner to select out the best part of the available dynamic range so only the result is passed to the computer for permanent storage, reducing the amount of data transferred and therefore the bandwidth requirement for any given speed of image throughput.
This is often referred to as "raw development". When converting from the four-sensor 2x2 Bayer-matrix raw form into RGB pixels, the green pair is used to control the luminance detail of the processed output pixel, while the red and blue, which each have half as many samples, are used mostly for the more slowly-varying chroma component of the image.
If raw format data is available, it can be used in high-dynamic-range imaging conversion, as a simpler alternative to the multi-exposure HDI approach of capturing three separate images, one underexposed, one correct and one overexposed, and "overlaying" one on top of the other.
Standardization[ edit ] Providing a detailed and concise description of the content of raw files is highly problematic. There is no single raw format; formats can be similar or radically different.
Different manufacturers use their own proprietary and typically undocumented formats, which are collectively known as raw format. Often they also change the format from one camera model to the next.
Several major camera manufacturers, including Nikon, Canon and Sony, encrypt portions of the file in an attempt to prevent third-party tools from accessing them.
The availability of high-quality open source software which decodes raw image formats, particularly dcrawhas helped to alleviate these concerns.Jul 31, · An Online Tagalog - English Dictionary Learn Tagalog or Filipino Language for free.
University of Phoenix Material Unix® and Linux® Comparison Matrix Directions: Choose three different versions of the UNIX® or Linux® operating systems to compare in the following matrix. It is the policy of Cecil College not to discriminate against any individual by reason of race, color, sex, marital status, citizenship, national or ethnic origin, age, religion, sexual orientation or disability (which can be reasonably accommodated without undue hardship) in the admission and treatment of students, educational programs and activities, scholarship and loan programs.
Abstract: We're living in yesterday's future, and it's nothing like the speculations of our authors and film/TV benjaminpohle.com a working science fiction novelist, I take a professional interest in how we get predictions about the future wrong, and why, so that I can avoid repeating the same mistakes.
Comparison matrix Essay. Unix® and Linux® Comparison Matrix. Directions: Choose three different versions of the UNIX® or Linux® operating systems to compare - Comparison matrix Essay introduction.
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