Typical risk matrices can correctly and unambiguously compare only a small fraction e. They can assign identical ratings to quantitatively very different risks "range compression".
Fundamental to these operations is the ability to accurately identify the building profile and predict how it will perform during the various stages of fire growth, correlated over time and throughout the fire suppression operational period. Fire Service has continued to apply the referral of a building type and its occupancy classification to dictate presumptive performance and operational characteristics.
Traditional Fireground operations have utilized this prescribed principle for decades, with great success. Size-Up First-due company and command arrivals typically define or establish prescribed strategic or tactical deployment methods based upon the predictability of fire ground and building performance indicators based up what the traditional size-up factors and indicators are being identified, perceived or assumed.
Traditional sequenced and transitional size-up has been an established indispensable fireground task. The importance of the size-up process: Each has distinct differences related to actions that must be considered based on incident Severity, Urgency or Growth SUG of the evolving incident conditions within the building and the incident actions plans IAP that must be formulated and implemented with regard for the continuum of time.
For example, size-up, risk assessment profiling and predictability of performance can vary greatly based on functionality and assignment. Protocols, risk focus areas, naturalistic decision-making attributes, situational awareness migration or drift may all influence what you are reading and interpreting when looking at the building upon arrival and as you phase into the sequence of operations.
There are numerous classic mnemonic systems that identify and address different size-up factors that can be used, which are widely referenced in strategy, tactics and incident management text books and manuals. They require recalibration and updating to reflect leading or latent indicators, variables and considerations that better align with the built environment and fireground conditions.
Building Performance The identification, assessment, probability, predictability and intrinsic characteristics of the building and its expected performance under fire conditions must be identified, assessed and integrated into an adaptive fire management model and flexible incident action plan.
Deterministic fireground models for size-up and suppression have to give way to a more expandable stochastic model of assessment.
Key to this is having a broad and well developed foundation of building knowledge. Small differences may yield to widely diverging outcomes the Butterfly Effect, Lorenz Predictability of Performance We have assumed that the routiness or successes of past operations and incident responses equates with predictability and diminished risk to our firefighting personnel.
Our current generation of buildings, construction and occupancies are not as predictable as past construction systems, occupancies and building types; therefore the risk assessment and size-up process, and resulting strategies and tactics must adapt to address these evolving rules of combat structural fire engagement that challenge anecdotal practices and methodologies.
Reading the Building For incident deployments to a report of a structure fire, the single most important attribute that defines all phases of subsequent operations and incident management; is that of understanding the building. Furthermore it is an essential element in the methodologies in reading a building.
Each of these five domains also has five points of excellence that are further integrated and share functionality.NASA Activities in Risk Assessment NASA Project Management Conference March , Michael G.
Stamatelatos, Ph.D.,Director. International Space Station. F. Space Shuttle. F Human Safety and Health.
Human Space Flight Orbital Space Plane/Space Launch Initiative. F. The International Space Station Essay.
The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. Originally published as a part of PMI Global Congress Proceedings – Prague, Czech Republic Alternative approaches to assessing risk probability • •.
The growing dependence of critical infrastructures and industrial automation on interconnected physical and cyber-based control systems has resulted in a growing and previously unforeseen cyber security threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCSs).
Applications of the International Space Station Probabilistic R isk Assessment Model. Recently the International Space Station (ISS) more Probabilistic Risk Assessmenthas incorporateds (PRAs) in the decision making process significant issues.
for Future PRAs will have major impact to ISS and future spacecraft development and operations.
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It speeds around the earth from hundreds of miles up. It speeds around the earth from hundreds of miles up.