Mixing of medicines prior to administration in clinical practice — responding to legislative changes It is common practice for healthcare professionals to mix one or more medicines together before administration to a patient.
Classification[ edit ] Routes of administration are usually classified by application location or exposition. The route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target effect is usually rather a matter of pharmacokinetics concerning the processes of uptake, distribution, and elimination of drugs.
Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration.
The location of the target effect of active substances are usually rather a matter of pharmacodynamics concerning e. An exception is topical administrationwhich generally means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomachand as such gastrointestinal along the gastrointestinal tract may be a more fitting term for this route of administration.
Strictly enteral administration directly into the intestines can be used for systemic administration, as well as local sometimes termed topicalsuch as in a contrast enemawhereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging.
However, for the purposes of classification based on location of effects, the term enteral is reserved for substances with systemic effects.
A medical professional injects medication into a gastric tube. Many drugs as tabletscapsulesor drops are taken orally. Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy.
Substances may also be placed into the small intestinesas with a duodenal feeding tube and enteral nutrition. Enteric coated tablets are designed to dissolve in the intestine, not the stomach, because the drug present in the tablet causes irritation in the stomach.
Administering medication rectally The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life. Rectal mucosa is highly vascularized tissue that allows for rapid and effective absorption of medications.
In hospice carea specialized rectal catheterdesigned to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration.
Parenteral[ edit ] Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: Parenteral administration can be performed by injectionthat is, using a needle usually a hypodermic needle and a syringe or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter.
Locations of application of parenteral administration include: Used in experimental research of chemicals  and as a treatment for malignancies of the brain.
One use is as a last line of opioid treatment for terminal cancer patients with intractable cancer pain. The patch is labelled with the time and date of administration as well as the administrator's initials.
A medical professional applies nose drops. Administering medication vaginally epicutaneous application onto the skin.
It can be used both for local effect as in allergy testing and typical local anesthesiaas well as systemic effects when the active substance diffuses through skin in a transdermal route.
Sublingual administration is when medication is placed under the tongue to be absorbed by the body. The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue. These medications can come in the form of tablets, films, or sprays. Many drugs are designed for sublingual administration, including cardiovascular drugs, steroids, barbiturates, opioid analgesics with poor gastrointestinal bioavailability, enzymes and, increasingly, vitamins and minerals.
Such substances are also called inhalational, e. Used in treating osteoarthritis intracardiac into the hearte.
Recreationally the colloquial term 'muscling' is used. This route is occasionally used for drugs and fluids in emergency medicine and pediatrics when intravenous access is difficult. Recreationally the colloquial term 'boning' is used. Skin popping is a slang term that includes subcutaneous injection, and is usually used in association with recreational drugs.
In addition to injection, it is also possible to slowly infuse fluids subcutaneously in the form of hypodermoclysis. Topical medication The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the pharmacodynamic effect thereof is local.
If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract. One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycinwhich is recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis.
Physical and chemical properties of the drug. The physical properties are solid, liquid and gas.Parenteral Medication is a route other than that of ingestion. This could be routes such as, IV, IM, Sub-Q, or mucosal. Source: Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.
Parenteral definition, taken into the body in a manner other than through the digestive canal. See more. Identical drugs can produce different results depending on the route of administration.
For example, some drugs are not significantly absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract and their action after enteral administration is therefore different from that after parenteral administration. Tube feeding is nutrition provided through the GI tract via a tube, catheter, or a surgically made hole into the GI tract.
As previously mentioned, it is the preferred method of feeding when patients are unable to eat enough calories on their own. Parenteral Medication - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.5/5(2).
Site Visits and Program Directors. Request for Accreditation Services. Site Visit Agendas (updated 5/).