OCB accomplishes this effectiveness by providing a positive social and psychological environment in which task work can flourish. OCB is important to employees insofar as it enhances social connections that influence job performance. OCB is one of the most studied content areas in organizational behavior, with many published theoretical pieces, primary research, narrative reviews, edited books, and meta-analyses that describe the nature and functioning of the construct. Similarly, Katz alludes to OCB with its assertion that, in addition to joining and staying with the organization and meeting performance standards, employees need to spontaneously go beyond their roles.
What is Organizational Citizenship Behavior? Organizational citizenship behavior is the technical psychological term for what can be simply defined as the compilation of individual behaviors in a group setting.
Organizational citizenship behavior was first defined by Dennis Organ in as "an individual behavior which is not rewarded by a formal reward system Common examples of business organizational citizenship behavior occur when employees are grouped together, which may occur on a regular basis or a part of a special or temporary assignment.
For example, employees in the marketing department will display organizational citizenship behavior on a regular basis because of they are co-workers in the same department; employees who are put together for a temporary work assignment will also display organizational citizenship behavior, albeit on a temporary basis.
In the context of business, this means that the Organizational citizenship behaviour most common organizational citizenship behaviors will lead to more productivity and more effective work. Although today psychologists recognize dozens of other common positive organizational citizenship behaviors, the five defined by Organ in are still considered to be the most significant.
The five most common behaviors, as defined by Dennis Organ, are: Altruism Altruism is defined as the desire to help or otherwise assist another individual, while not expecting a reward in compensation for that assistance.
A common example outside of a business setting would be someone who drives a neighbor to work when their car has broken down, while not expecting gas money or favors in compensation. In a business setting, altruistic behavior is generally related to the work or project that the business group is working on.
Someone exhibiting altruistic behavior in a group setting might volunteer to work on certain special projects, voluntarily helping or assisting other employees with their work or with other tasks, and volunteering to do additional work in order to help other employees reduce their own work load.
Altruism in the workplace leads to productivity and effectiveness because it encourages good inter-employee relations; it can also reduce the stress load on other employees, such as those who are overwhelmed without a little bit of help, which will in turn increase productivity.
Courtesy Courtesy is defined as behavior which is polite and considerate towards other people.
In a business context, courtesy is usually exhibited through behaviors such as inquiring about personal subjects that a coworker has previously brought up, asking if a coworker is having any trouble with a certain work related project, and informing coworkers about prior commitments or any other problems that might cause them to reduce their workload or be absent from work.
Courtesy not only encourages positive social interactions between employees, which improve the work environment, but they can reduce any potential stress that might occur from employees who do not have the courtesy to inform their coworkers about issues such as upcoming absences from work—and so on.
Sportsmanship Sportsmanship is defined as exhibiting no negative behavior when something does not go as planned--or when something is being perceived as annoying, difficult, frustrating or otherwise negative.
Outside of a business context, sportsmanship is most commonly associated with sports and games--poor sportsmanship, for example, might occur when a player on a soccer team swears stomps and argues when their team loses a soccer game.
In the context of business, good sportsmanship is usually related to potential complaints about work or workloads in addition to negativity surrounding work-related surprises. Imagine an employee who submits their proposal to their superior may be expecting it to be well-received and accepted—it is rejected, instead, and the employee displays good sportsmanship by not complaining about the situation to other coworkers or individuals who may report their behavior to others working for the business.
Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is defined as behavior that suggests a reasonable level of self-control and discipline, which extends beyond the minimum requirements expected in that situation.
Exceeding these requirements, and thereby showing conscientiousness, could be observed—for example—by an employee planning ahead to ensure that they, and their coworkers, do not become overwhelmed in their work.
Civic Virtue Civic virtue is defined as behavior which exhibits how well a person represents an organization with which they are associated, and how well that person supports their organization outside of an official capacity.5 Common Types of Organizational Citizenship Behavior What is Organizational Citizenship Behavior?
Test your understanding of organizational citizenship behavior with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. These practice questions will help. Learn about Organizational citizenship behaviour from our weekly blog. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) refers to the behaviors of individuals that promote effectiveness in organizational functioning. OCB accomplishes this effectiveness by providing a positive social and psychological environment in which task work can flourish. OCB is important to employees.
What is Organizational Citizenship Behavior? Organizational citizenship behavior is the technical psychological term for what can be simply defined as the compilation of individual behaviors in a .
Test your understanding of organizational citizenship behavior with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. These practice questions will help. In industrial and organizational psychology, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a person's voluntary commitment within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks.
Organizational citizenship is a concept that all companies wish to have but very few can actually achieve. It is rooted in individual employees'. Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a term that encompasses anything positive and constructive that employees do, of their own volition, which .
Organizational citizenship is a concept that all companies wish to have but very few can actually achieve. It is rooted in individual employees' view of the company and how they associate.