After conducting longitudinal research plus numerous studies on genetics, interventions, and brain function, we now have a great deal of independent, scientific, replicated, published research on dyslexia.
See also academic content standards. Academic Content Standards Academic content standards are developed by state departments of education to demonstrate what they expect all students to know and be able to do in the core content areas.
According to NCLBELL students "will meet the same challenging State academic content and student academic achievement standards as all children are expected to meet. Academic English The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments.
Accommodation for English Language Learners Adapting language spoken or written to make it more understandable to second language learners. Accommodation For Students With Disabilities Techniques and materials that allow individuals with LD to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness.
Examples include spellcheckers, tape recorders, and expanded time for completing assignments. Accuracy The ability to recognize words correctly. Adequate Yearly Progress AYP An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards.
Affective Filter The affective filter is a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition.
Negative feelings such as lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence and learning anxiety act as filters that hinder and obstruct language learning.
This term is associated with linguist Stephen Krashen's Monitor Model of second language learning. Affix Part of word that is "fixed to" either the beginnings of words prefixes or the endings of words suffixes.
The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix dis- and a suffix -ful. Age Equivalent Score In a norm-referenced assessment, individual student's scores are reported relative to those of the norming population.
This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average age of people who received the same score as the individual child. Thus, an individual child's score is described as being the same as students that are younger, the same age, or older than that student e.
Alphabetic Principle The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words. Americans With Disabilities Act ADA A federal law that gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion.
It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications. For more information, go to The Americans with Disabilities Act.
Analogy-based Phonics In this approach, students are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don't know. They apply this strategy when the words share similar parts in their spellings, for example, reading screen by analogy to green.
Students may be taught a large set of key words for use in reading new words. Analytic Phonics In this approach, students learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation.
AMAOs indicate how much English language proficiency reading, writing, speaking, listening, and comprehension children served with Title III funds are expected to gain each year. Annual increases in the number or percentage of children making progress in learning English.
Annual increases in number or percentage of children attaining English proficiency. See also formative assessment and summative assessment.
Assistive Technology Equipment that enhances the ability of students and employees to be more efficient and successful.
For more information, go to "LD Topics: A person can be predominantly inattentive often referred to as ADDpredominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of these two. Attention Deficit Disorder ADD see ADHD Auditory Discrimination Ability to detect differences in sounds; may be gross ability, such as detecting the differences between the noises made by a cat and dog, or fine ability, such as detecting the differences made by the sounds of letters "m" and "n.
Auditory Memory Ability to retain information which has been presented orally; may be short term memory, such as recalling information presented several seconds before; long term memory, such as recalling information presented more than a minute before; or sequential memory, such as recalling a series of information in proper order.
Students with APD often do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words. For more information, go to Auditory Processing Disorder in Children.
Authentic Assessment Authentic assessment uses multiple forms of evaluation that reflect student learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on classroom activities. Examples of authentic assessment include performance assessment, portfolios, and student self-assessment.
Automaticity Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. These skills become automatic after extended periods of training.
With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition, that is, retrieving words from memory, and are able to focus attention on constructing meaning from the text, rather than decoding.Millions of children with dyslexia endure frustration and demoralization on a daily basis as they struggle to acquire skills that many of us take for granted.
Dyslexia is a complex, lifelong disorder involving difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters and other symbols. Dyslexia does not affect general intelligence, but is often co-diagnosed with ADHD. Last week I disclosed to human resources that I have dyslexia.
I am both relieved and terrified. I have been dyslexic all my life. At school I was in remedial classes and got extra time in exams. Dyslexia Testing: Questionnaire - A Preliminary Diagnosis. Objective.
This questionnaire is to provide information on a person's possible strengths and weaknesses when performing some basic everyday tasks, particularly communicative ones. Ignorance often leads to failure. Dyslexia is a syndrome of multiple varied reading and non-reading symptoms affecting over 40 million American children and adults.
Many with dyslexia and related learning and attention disorders realize quite early that they are not like their peers. “Cursive writing is a traditional skill that has been replaced with technology,” Hairston said.
“Educators are having to make choices about what they teach with a limited amount of time and.