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The a variable is global and uninitialized so it lands in. We needed to compile without optimization to see this I added e to your example, this is a local not initialized, but then used.
Had I not used it and not optimized there probably would have been space allocated for it but no initialization. Other architectures have different calling conventions with respect to where the incoming parameters and outgoing return value live.
If I optmize -O2 on the gcc line Disassembly of section. The linker doesnt remove these. Now c and d are dead code they dont do anything they need no storage so c is no longer allocated space on the stack nor is d allocated any.
We have plenty of registers for this architecture for this calling convention for this code, so e does not need any memory allocated on the stack, it comes in in r0 the math can be done with r0 and then it is returned in r0. I know I didnt tell the linker where to put.
Linker scripts can play havoc with the typical results, so beware. Typical, but there might be a compiler with exceptions: If const then perhaps. Just because arm or mips or other may have written down a convention doesnt mean a compiler has to use it, only if they claim to support some convention or standard should they then attempt to comply.
For a compiler to be useful it needs a convention and stick to it whatever it is, so that both caller and callee of a function know where to get parameters and to return a value.
Architectures with enough registers will often have a convention where some few number of registers are used for the first so many parameters not necessarily one to one and then the stack is used for all other parameters. Some architectures due to lack of gprs or other, use the stack in both directions.
You are welcome to seek out the conventions and try to read them, but at the end of the day the compiler you are using, if not broken follows a convention and by setting up experiments like the one above you can see the convention in action.
Plus in this case optimizations. A performance optimization, if x needed to be touched more than once memory cycles going to the stack cost more than register accesses.
IMO it is important to see this, the calling convention comes into play for some variables and others can vary based on optimization, no optimization they are what most folks are going to state off hand.Why Is Charles Murray Odious?
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