Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology.
These range from short-term crises, such as difficulties resulting from adolescent rebellion, to more severe, chronic conditions such as schizophrenia. Some clinical psychologists treat specific problems exclusively, such as phobias or clinical depression. Others focus on specific populations: Cognitive psychologists are interested in questions such as, how does the mind represent reality?
How do people learn? How do people understand and produce language? Cognitive psychologists also study reasoning, judgment, and decision making.
Cognitive and perceptual psychologists often collaborate with behavioral neuroscientists to understand the biological bases of perception or cognition or with researchers in other areas of psychology to better understand the cognitive biases in the thinking of people with depression, for example.
Counseling psychologists help people understand and take action on career and work problems. They pay attention to how problems and people differ across life stages. Until recently, the primary focus was on childhood and adolescence, the most formative years.
But as life expectancy in this country approaches 80 years, developmental psychologists are becoming increasingly interested in aging, especially in researching and developing ways to help elderly people stay as independent as possible. Experimental psychologists study both human and nonhuman animals with respect to their abilities to detect what is happening in a particular environment and to acquire and maintain responses to what is happening.
They study how patients handle illness; why some people don't follow medical advice; and the most effective ways to control pain or to change poor health habits.
They also develop health care strategies that foster emotional and physical well-being. Psychologists team up with medical personnel in private practice and in hospitals to provide patients with complete health care.
They educate medical staff about psychological problems that arise from the pain and stress of illness and about symptoms that may seem to be physical in origin but actually have psychological causes.
Health psychologists also investigate issues that affect a large segment of society, and develop and implement programs to deal with these problems. Examples are teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, risky sexual behaviors, smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet.
Many serve as human resources specialists, helping organizations with staffing, training, and employee development. And others work as management consultants in such areas as strategic planning, quality management, and coping with organizational change.
For example, behavioral neuropsychologists may study the way the brain creates and stores memories, or how various diseases and injuries of the brain affect emotion, perception, and behavior. They design tasks to study normal brain functions with new imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography PETsingle photon emission computed tomography SPECTand functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI.
And with the dramatic increase in the number of survivors of traumatic brain injury over the past 30 years, neuropsychologists are working with health teams to help brain-injured people resume productive lives.
Some develop new methods for performing analysis; others create research strategies to assess the effect of social and educational programs and psychological treatment. They develop and evaluate mathematical models for psychological tests.
They also propose methods for evaluating the quality and fairness of the tests. These psychologists frequently try to identify the attributions, attitudes, beliefs, and social norms that often influence a variety of interpersonal behaviors.
This research can include the study of individuals as well as groups, and may involve either the observation of observable behaviors or assessment of private thoughts. Social psychologists can be found in academic settings, advertising agencies, corporations, hospitals, and testing or survey firms.Developmental Psychology Theories People undergo many physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, and emotional changes throughout life, and it is these changes that developmental psychologists study.
Social theories are generally centered on specific social phenomena, including group behavior, prosocial behavior, social influence, love and much more. Reasons to Study Psychology Theories In your psychology courses, you may find yourself questioning how necessary it is to learn about different psychology theories, especially those that are.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and benjaminpohle.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups. Here is a sampling of some of the more influential theories that can be found in this branch of psychology.
Attribution theory – is concerned with the ways in which people explain (or attribute) the behaviour of others. The theory divides the way people attribute causes to events into two types.
Psychology — the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes — attempts to uncover why and how we do what we do. Different theories of psychology govern how different psychologists approach research into human behavior.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific benjaminpohle.com terms thoughts, feelings, and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans.