Types of war War must entail some degree of confrontation using weapons and other military technology and equipment by armed forces employing military tactics and operational art within a broad military strategy subject to military logistics. Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of warand to reduce it to a military science. Modern military science considers several factors before a national defence policy is created to allow a war to commence: Biological warfareor germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Obelisk of AksumEthiopia There were a number of regional empires during this period. The kingdom of the Medes helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire in tandem with the nomadic Scythians and the Babylonians.
Several empires began in modern-day Greece. From the 4th to 6th centuries, northern India was ruled by the Gupta Empire.
In southern India, three prominent Dravidian kingdoms emerged: The ensuing stability contributed to heralding in the golden age of Hindu culture in the 4th and 5th centuries. The empire would continue to grow, controlling much of the land from England to Mesopotamiareaching its greatest extent under the emperor Trajan died CE.
In the 3rd century CE, the empire split into western and eastern regions, with usually separate emperors. The eastern empire, now known as the Byzantine Empirewith its capital at Constantinoplewould continue for another thousand years, until Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in Han China developed advanced cartography, shipbuilding, and navigation.
The Chinese invented blast furnacesand created finely tuned copper instruments. As with other empires during the Classical Period, Han China advanced significantly in the areas of government, education, mathematics, astronomy, technology, and many others.
Successful regional empires were also established in the Americasarising from cultures established as early as BCE. Maya civilization arose as the Olmec mother culture gradually declined. The later empire of the Aztecs was built on neighbouring cultures and was influenced by conquered peoples such as the Toltecs.
Some areas experienced slow but steady technological advances, with important developments such as the stirrup and moldboard plough arriving every few centuries.
There were, however, in some regions, periods of rapid technological progress. Most important, perhaps, was the Mediterranean area during the Hellenistic periodwhen hundreds of technologies were invented.
Declines, falls and resurgence The ancient empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and supporting a central bureaucracy. These costs fell most heavily on the peasantrywhile land-owning magnates increasingly evaded centralized control and its costs.
Barbarian pressure on the frontiers hastened internal dissolution. The great empires of Eurasia were all located on temperate and subtropical coastal plains. From the Central Asian steppes, horse-based nomads, mainly Mongols and Turks, dominated a large part of the continent. The development of the stirrup and the breeding of horses strong enough to carry a fully armed archer made the nomads a constant threat to the more settled civilizations.
Pantheon, Romenow a Catholic church The gradual break-up of the Roman Empirespanning several centuries after the 2nd century CE, coincided with the spread of Christianity outward from the Middle East. After the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty  and the demise of the Three Kingdoms, nomadic tribes from the north began to invade in the 4th century, eventually conquering areas of northern China and setting up many small kingdoms.
Post-classical history University of TimbuktuMali The Post-classical Era, though deriving its name from the Eurocentric era of " Classical antiquity ", refers to a broader geographic sweep.
The era is commonly dated from the 5th-century fall of the Western Roman Empirewhich fragmented into many separate kingdoms, some of which would later be confederated under the Holy Roman Empire. The Post-classical period also encompasses the Early Muslim conqueststhe subsequent Islamic Golden Ageand the commencement and expansion of the Arab slave tradefollowed by the Mongol invasions in the Middle East and Central Asia,[ citation needed ] and the founding around of the Ottoman Empire.
On the southeast coast of Africa, Arabic ports were established where goldspicesand other commodities were traded. This allowed Africa to join the Southeast Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this, along with Muslim culture, resulted in the Swahili culture.The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead.
The unicorn was depicted in ancient seals of the Indus Valley Civilization and was mentioned by the ancient Greeks in accounts of natural history by various writers, including Ctesias, Strabo, Pliny the Younger, and Aelian.
The history of the world, in common parlance, is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
This is an incomplete listing of some very bad things that happened before the 20th Century. I've scoured the history books and collected most of the major atrocities that anyone has bothered to enumerate.
However, just because an event is missing from these pages doesn't mean that it wasn't very bloody. A New Voyage to Carolina; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of That Country: Together with the Present State Thereof.
And a Journal of a Thousand Miles, Travel'd Thro' Several Nations of Indians. Giving a Particular Account of Their Customs, Manners, &c. . Since the dawn of time, wars and battles have had a significant impact on the course of history. From the earliest battles in ancient Mesopotamia to today's wars in the Middle East, conflicts have had the power to shape and change our world.
Human history had numerous wars coming and going, but the average number of people dying from war has fluctuated relatively little, being about 1 to 10 people dying per , However, major wars over shorter periods have resulted in much higher casualty rates, .